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GENERALLY ACCEPTED AUDITING STANDARDS

Generally Accepted Auditing Standards, or GAAS are sets of standards against which the quality of audits are performed and may be judged. Several organizations have developed such sets of principles, which vary by territory.

 

US GAAS

US GAAS are ten auditing standards, developed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), consisting of general standards, standards of field work, and standards of reporting, along with interpretations. They were developed by the AICPA in 1947 and have undergone minor changes since then.

The US GAAS are as follows[1]:

General Standards

  1. The auditor must have adequate technical training and proficiency to perform the audit.
  2. The auditor must maintain independence in mental attitude in all matters related to the audit.
  3. The auditor must use due professional care during the performance of the audit and the preparation of the report.

Standards of Field Work

  1. The auditor must adequately plan the work and must properly supervise any assistants.
  2. The auditor must obtain a sufficient understanding of the entity and its environment, including its internal control, to assess the risk of material misstatement of the financial statements whether due to error or fraud, and to design the nature, timing, and extent of further audit procedures.
  3. The auditor must obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence by performing audit procedures to afford a reasonable basis for an opinion regarding the financial statements under audit.

Standards of Reporting

  1. The auditor must state in the auditor's report whether the financial statements are presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
  2. The auditor must identify in the auditor's report those circumstances in which such principles have not been consistently observed in the current period in relation to the preceding period.
  3. When the auditor determines that informative disclosures are not reasonably adequate, the auditor must so state in the auditor's report.
  4. The auditor must either express an opinion regarding the financial statements, taken as a whole, or state that an opinion cannot be expressed, in the auditor's report. When the auditor cannot express an overall opinion, the auditor should state the reasons therefore in the auditor's report. In all cases where an auditor's name is associated with financial statements, the auditor should clearly indicate the character of the auditor's work, if any, and the degree of responsibility the auditor is taking, in the auditor's report.

ISAs

International Standards on Auditing are developed by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board of the International Federation of Accountants. Derivatives of ISAs are used in the audit of several other juristictions, including the United Kingdom.